Read e-book online Adiabatic Fixed-Bed Reactors: Practical Guides in Chemical PDF

By Jonathan Worstell

ISBN-10: 0128013060

ISBN-13: 9780128013069

Practical courses in Chemical Engineering are a cluster of brief texts that every offers a concentrated introductory view on a unmarried topic. the entire library spans the most issues within the chemical approach industries that engineering execs require a simple knowing of. they're ‘pocket courses’ that pro engineers can simply hold with them or entry electronically whereas working.

Each textual content is very sensible and utilized, and offers first rules for engineers who have to wake up to hurry in a brand new region quick. The concentrated proof supplied in each one consultant may help you communicate with specialists within the box, try your personal preliminary troubleshooting, money calculations, and resolve rudimentary problems.

Adiabatic Fixed-bed Reactors covers the basics of fixed-bed reactors, together with a number of varieties and their actual homes. functions of every machine sort are mentioned, in addition to trouble-shooting Solid-supported Catalysts. this article is perfect for any engineer who's new to operating with fixed-bed reactors and desires to grasp the fundamentals quick and easily.

  • Practical, brief, concise details at the fundamentals may help you get a solution or educate your self a brand new subject quickly
  • Supported through examples that can assist you clear up a true global problem
  • Single topic volumes offer key proof for professionals

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Additional info for Adiabatic Fixed-Bed Reactors: Practical Guides in Chemical Engineering

Example text

R. ) Silica, SiO2, possesses neither Bronsted nor Lewis acidity. Lewis acidity is not generated in SiO2 by high-temperature calcination. 7 Silica is used as a catalyst solid support, but it is difficult to bind metals to it. 7 SILICAÀALUMINA OXIDE CATALYSTS We do mix silica with alumina to increase the acidity of a given metal oxide support. SilicaÀalumina mixtures have both Bronsted acidity and Lewis acidity. In silicaÀalumina, the ratio of Bronsted acid sites to Lewis acid sites depends upon calcination temperature since Bronsted acid sites are converted quantitatively into Lewis acid sites upon heating.

Any molecule with an unshared electron pair can neutralize an acid site, thereby deactivating an active site. For example, three coordinate nitrogen has an unshared electron pair; therefore, it behaves as a Lewis base. Three coordinate phosphorus also has an unshared electron pair; thus, it behaves as a Lewis base. , a double bond or triple bond, behaves as a Lewis base. Thus, ammonia, amines, water, oxygenated hydrocarbons, phosphines, and alkenes and aromatics deactivate solid acid catalysts.

Amines and phosphines, possess an unshared electron pair. Thus, they behave as Lewis bases when they encounter a Lewis acid. Plant treated water contains amines and phosphines. They enter a chemical process through leaks of treated water into the process. Also, feed “as received” may contain trace quantities of amines and phosphines. Alkene and aromatic π-bonds are electron-rich. Thus, a π-bond behaves as a Lewis base when it encounters a Lewis acid. ” When such a complex forms, the acid site ceases to be catalytic.

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Adiabatic Fixed-Bed Reactors: Practical Guides in Chemical Engineering by Jonathan Worstell

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